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Poetic masterpiece through the ages the quotsmall state with few peoplequot -- Comment on "moral"

CATE:ShareExperiences DATE:2018-02-25 READ:1025
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Book review author:Xushengbin

Famous works of ancient times《The Scripture of Ethics》,For the old son of the spring and Autumn Period,I read many years,The most exciting thing for me is that Lao Tzu is right“Small states and widows”Description,No one can use such a language so easy to understand,Expressing such a complex view of society and history。

If,hairThe origin of the present universe——“Avenue”,The first great contribution of Lao Tzu's Taoism,that,It is found that the good future of human society is“Small states and widows”,It is the second great contribution of Lao Tzu's Taoism。The two discoveries are all directions for the ultimate liberation of human beings。

Accurate description of the good future of human society,Must be accessible and easy to understand、The vivid image and the full three pieces。

Confucius's world of Great Harmony——“The journey of the Boulevard,The whole world as one community,To pick the good and select the capable for public posts,Have faith and promote good will,The enemy came close to its close,The son of a single son,Providing for the elderly.,Strong use,A young man,Widows or disabled by key has been raised;Men have points,A woman has a return,Wickedness does not have to be abandoned to the ground,It is not out of body or for oneself,It is seeking closure and fashion,Steal a thief without doing it,So the outside household is not closed,It is the predicate of Datong。 ”Confucius's description of the world of the Datong,Easy to understand is to do it,But it does not see its inevitability,It seems to be just the good wishes of the people。

Baidu explanation“Communism society”——“On the basis of highly developed social productivity and the vast consensus,Let each person do his best practice、The principle of free association ordered workers each one takes what he needs of the social economic form。”This explanation can only be done by the theorist,To make it clear to the ordinary people,You need to write a large book。

The future world of Christians is heaven,Credibility is not to be said much。

Laozi“Small states and widows”only73A word——“Small states and widows。The person is not thousand,Make the people dead and not go far(xi)。There is no boat in a car.,There was no Chen。Let the people return to the use of knotted ropes。Foodspotting,Beautiful clothes,"Therefore,Abode。Neighbours look at each other,Hear the voice Jigou,The people are not in contact with the old death。”

(《The Scripture of Ethics》No.80chapter)Use the common sense of everyday life to describe the good future of human society,Easy to understand、Vivid image、According to the full,Is not a poetic masterpiece through the ages!

One、Perpetual peace“Small states and widows”Become a historical necessity

The country wide”,From the economic point of view,Related to the development of productivity,Fundamentally,It is the product of the alienation of human nature resulting from the private power。

Lao Tzu analyzed the root of the war,He said:“The world has a way,But cursory as dung。A world without,Military in rural。No crime is much more than desire,No fault between desire.,Misfortune is not enough to be contented。”(《Moral theory》The thirty-second chapter46)Obviously,The root of the war is that the king of Hou violates the road——Coveted the labour and territory of other countries,The gold and silver treasures of other countries,And do not know satisfaction;Therefore,Drive the people to war for years,At the door,At the expense of displacement,Kill the sand at the young horse;Therefore,The small country is occupied,“The country wide”The Hou Wang's valiant record,And the truth is“Xing,Common people;Dead,Common people”。

The country wide is a product of the war of aggression,Once the world has achieved perpetual peace,The country wide will lose its value of existence,The small states and the people will become historical necessity。

The happiest countries in the world are such as Denmark、Sweden、Bhutan and other small countries,That means how great the discovery of Lao Tzu is。

Two、  Small states and widows”It is a highly developed civilized society

 1.The dialectics of Lao Tzu advocates the change of time。

A lot of people say Lao Tzu described it“Small states and widows”It is the human society to go back to the primitive society。Incorrect,Lao Tzu is a real master of Dialectics,Retrogression does not belong to the category of Dialectics。

Lao Tzu is in《The Scripture of Ethics》No.16Zhang said“Heavenly Man,Root of each compound”,Clear everything movement is the outcome of return to origin;No.40The direction of motion of the chapter affirmative Tao is“The movement of the reactor”,It shows that all things follow“Things will develop in the opposite direction when they become extreme、Move in circles”Law of motion。Four seasons in spring, summer, autumn and winter,Is this a retrogression?Life is old and death,Is this a retrogression?Lao Tzu observes the human society on the basis of the road,How can you reverse the car?

Retrogression is not the thought of Lao Tzu,The basic idea is Lao Tzu everything in both opposite and complementary、The change and development of things and recycle of contradictions。

《The Scripture of Ethics》No.15Chapter points out“Who can be turbid to calm Xu Qing,Who is able to move Xu Sheng”,Lao Tzu found the law of change to make decadent reborn;No.22Zhang said“Our new”, Old things are bound to innovate。It is no basis for Lao Tzu to oppose change。

Lao Tzu advocates the change of time。according to《Chuang-tzu》Record,Lao Tzu said to Confucius:“Cardiff six,The first king of the trace,How did it go?。The words of the present son,Still still。Cardiff trace,Go out,And the traces of the trace are on the track?”(Chuang-tzu·Day)Lao Tzu thought,《poetry》、《book》、《ceremony》、《Happy》、《easy》、《spring and autumn》Six is the ancient old footprints,It's left by shoes.,How can the old footprints be worn as a shoe?Lao Tzu objected to the king of France,Advocate the change of time,Saying that Lao Tzu is going back to the primitive society,It is imposed。

    2. “Small states and widows”Not primitive society。

Small states and widows”Yes“Thousand people.”、A car boat、There was,These advanced instruments,Where is the primitive society?We can't blame Lao Tzu for not talking about the computer、Mobile phones and aircraft,Because we can't tell what advanced technology we have in the future.。

Small states and widows”Residents “Foodspotting,Beautiful clothes,Abode,"Therefore”,Live a life of free prosperity and happiness,Where is the primitive society?Some experts said that without forethought“Small states and widows”It's a primitive society,And then ask the question immediately“Where is the primitive society?、beautiful、security、Happy”?This is to say that Lao Tzu is a woman first,And then ask questions“Lao Tzu, you are a woman,Why do not give birth to children?”Is this refutation interesting?

3.“Small states and widows”Society is a highly developed democratic society。

Small states and widows”Advanced social instruments,Developed traffic,Everyone is equal.,Rich life,It is clearly a highly developed society.,It has not yet fully reached the degree described by Lao Tzu。

    《The Scripture of Ethics》in,“sage”Appear 30second,“Hou Wang”Appear5second,however,In the small state and the people's society,No“holypeople”,Either“Hou Wang”,Only four“civil”——“Small statecivil”、“sendcivilDead but not far away”、“sendcivilReturn to the use of knotted ropes”、“civilDo not go to contact with old death”。Thus it can be seen,“Small states and widows”Society is the owner of the house、An equal society。

Three、“Small states and widows”The essence of society is simple and simple

  1. 1. human society“The ancient beginning”Simple state。

Heavenly Man,Root of each compound”,Human society“root”What's this?《The Scripture of Ethics》No.14Zhang said:“The way of the present,In order to resist the present,From the beginning of knowledge,It is the predicate of the Tao。” “The ancient beginning”That is“The state of the universe and the initial stage of human society”,It's the human society.“root”。

that,What is the situation at the beginning of the human society?

     Chuang-tzu thinks it's thirteen.(Only the Vulcan materials、Fu、Shennong three)The down time。Confucius thinks it's Yao、Shun、Yu period。Lao Tzu“The Tao is the mother of all things”Come to conclusion,Human beings“The ancient beginning”It is the popular time of the Boulevard,Human law nature、The three characteristics of the self - object of all things and the simplicity of human nature。

first,Human law nature。No.25The chapter says that human beings first had a way、day、land、king“Four”,A man of the king's way,Therefore“Human law,Earth law day,Tian FA Dao,Imitation of nature”,That is, the nature of human law。Human law nature,It is natural.,Namely“Live and be free,Is not.,Long and Ephesians,Live and live”,Everyone is equal.,Free living and development。

Second,Self object。No.34Zhang said:“Hehe,It can be left and right。”The Boulevard created all things,And allow all things to develop and change freely。Therefore,All things respect the way and Guide。

Nature reveres to Guide,Let plants and animals grow and develop freely。Animals and plants interact with the food chain,Take the biological instinct as the limit,It's on the road,Wolf eating sheep is also a kind of harmony,It's a good example.;The beginning of the human society,As well as animals and plants,In beauty and ugliness、Good and evil、Harmony between simplicity and desire to achieve harmony。then,Simplicity of human nature,Everyone is equal.,The people live a simple and simple life。

Boulevard,Form nature、Harmony of human society。This is the first32What is said in the chapter“Self object”,Man and nature、Harmony between people and people。

    Third,Human nature is simple。No.55The chapter is in accordance with the baby metaphor.“Xuande”——“A man of virtue,Than in the pure”。To utter innocence.、Weak and undisputable,This is the beginning of human nature。therefore,Laozi said later,A man who ruled the country in ancient times,Not to teach the people power,But to teach them to be simple(“Ancient Taoist,Not in the light of the Ming and the people,Will be foolish.”65chapter)。

This is the man on the road to show us“The ancient beginning”Essential characteristics——Honest。

2.human society“Complex”Is the return of human primordial.。

For example, a person experiences a baby.——children——juvenile——Youth——Adults——old age,People often say“The youngest children”,That is to say that the old man is like a child,This is the man's return。Zhang Songhui said well:“The baby status advocated by Laozi,It's not the usual state of the baby.,But through the baby——Adult——The three process of returning to the baby,The baby is a state have tremendous courage and wisdom、To the just soft‘Infant state’。”( 《Lao Tzu research》,People's Publishing House,2009year11April edition,No.120page)

The same is the same in human society,It goes through the alienation of human nature,Eventually it will return to the initial state,Of course, not to return to the initial,It is the simplicity of getting rid of the alienation of human nature after a high degree of development。It's natural.、Certain。

《The Scripture of Ethics》No.28Zhang said:“Know its male,Keep its female,Return to a baby;Know its white,Keep its humiliation,Return to the park。”This is the natural law that expresses the return of human and human society:Human beings get rid of the alienation of human nature,It's going to return to an unsophisticated baby like a baby、Weak and undisputable;The human society is going to return to the beginning of the beginning“Portsmouth”。

   Four、Lao Tzu“Small states and widows”Image description

Small states and widows”Society has come from the alienation of human nature,It can not avoid the trace of human alienation;Since it has to revert to the simplicity of the beginning of mankind,So it's a natural thing to do with“The ancient beginning”Have something to agree with。Laozi“Thousand people is not”、“The use of knotted ropes”and“The people are not in contact with the old death”Three people gifted with an extraordinary retentive memory.,Explain the road to human practice,Sure to use“Sambo”(Love、Thrift、Indisputable。67chapter)Realization“Three”(Unskillful abandoning of profit、An absolute false concern、Discarding wisdom and abandoning plea。19chapter),take“Small states and widows”Society gets rid of the alienation of human nature、The return of the simple process is vividly expressed.。

first,“Thousand people is not”Namely“Not expensive and rare”。

The alienation of human nature caused by the private power,One of the characteristics,It is Hou King greedy for Rong Huafugui,In order to get“Rare goods”For the glory,“Fuwencai,Take a sword with a sword,Dietetic diet,Surplus goods”(53chapter),So that“If the upper beam is not straight”,Some people follow the king of the king,Unscrupulously steal and steal,therefore,Lao Tzu is in《The Scripture of Ethics》Reminding Hou Wang many times“Unskillful abandoning of profit”,want“Not expensive and rare”,want“To what、Go to Thailand、To luxury”。

Small states and widows”Sociology,“Thousand people is not”,That is to say that the residents of the future society will be“Unskillful abandoning of profit”、“A simple”,Shame on luxury,Although it takes a lot of manpower and material resources“Thousand people.”,however,Do not use as much as possible,And to save the simple life is happy,Like today's small country Denmark——All the families have cars but they are happy to ride。

Second,“The use of knotted ropes”It is the visual element to protect the park。

Honest”Namely“An absolute false concern”、“Unselfishness and selflessness”,Visual element and simplicity,Realize people and people、Harmony between man and nature and man itself。

Ropework”Two words are used too well!It makes us understand“Small states and widows”Society is to human society“The ancient beginning”A simple return。“Ropework”,Signify“Small states and widows”Social people do not need to communicate with others“Strategy”,Don't need intrigue、Dark box operation,It's honest and trustworthy.;“Ropework”,Signify“Small states and widows”The people of the society are passing“Low carbon”Life,There is no need to consume too much resources;“Ropework”,Signify“Small states and widows”In society gold, silver and jewels will become waste。We are advocating today,Practising,It's not just in the direction.“Ropework”Is it going forward?

Third,“The people are not in contact with the old death”Namely“Not disputing”。

Someone will“The people are not in contact with the old death”Interpret as“The common people do not die”,This is a typical,contact《Lao Tzu》full text,This kind of understanding doesn't conform to Lao Tzu's intention radically。《Moral theory》It illustrates the fashion of the Boulevard“The king and the people”、“State and state”Intercourse with many aspects。

First,sage、Hou Wang、The common people have each other。such as,The saints put their own interests after the people,Try to assist the people,Give the people the more,The richer you are in the spirit(66chapter、7chapter、81chapter);The saints should treat all people kindly(49chapter);The man of the road and the person who violate the Tao should learn from each other(27chapter);The saints should accept the supervision and criticism of the people(49chapter、78chapter);The king is in a high position.,Should be base on the base,The following is the base,That is to rely on the people for their own(39chapter);The needs between the people“Complain to Germany”(63chapter)。

Secondly,A peaceful exchange between state and state。No.35Zhang said:“Hold an elephant,The world。Go without harm,Anping too。”That is to say that Hou Wang follows the road,People in the world will interact with each other。Contact without hurting each other,So the world peace in Kangtai。No.61Zhang said:“Big bang,Downflow,Also it is female。The exchange of the world,A static constant to win male。”Is this the peaceful communication between States and states?

The popular reality of the Boulevard is close to people,The future society is the continuation and development of the real society,How can it be possible“There is no relationship between man and man”?

The people are not in contact with the old death”, It is a struggle against the dissimilation of human nature in a real society.,It is to be“Discarding wisdom and abandoning plea”,It is to be“For the sake of disputing”。Lao Tzu found that,Social unrest and war are caused by the great nobles Hou Wang,therefore,He repeatedly condemned the hegemony of the world by force,All the exercise condemned,Condemnation of oppression and exploitation。

Equality and harmony between people and people,“Not disputing”;The peaceful coexistence of state and state,“Not to force the Lord it over others”,This is it.“Small states and widows”Social“The people are not in contact with the old death”。

With a few easy not to slip up“Small states and widows”Sociology,Namely:

Perpetual peace,Sweet peace is not a myth;

    “Thousand people.”Don't use it,Qushenqutai to luxury;

With the rope”Fraudulent fraud, “Intercourse”Discarded hegemony;

Dissimilation of visual element and simplicity,The flower of the small states and the people everywhere。

conclusion

Lao Tzu《The Scripture of Ethics》Always use common sense of life to reveal nature、The general law of development of society,another use“Thousand people is not”、“The use of knotted ropes”and“The people are not in contact with the old death”Three words with vivid and specific meanings,Explain the good future of human society“Small states and widows”Is not the original back to prehistoric times,But after the development of civilization,Return to simple simplicity,Return to peace and harmony,Return to a free life。“Small states and widows”than“Datong world”More credible,than“Each takes what he needs”More real,than“The paradise of the afterlife”More realistic。therefore,“Small states and widows”Lao Tzu is about the bright future of mankind poetic masterpiece through the ages。

 

 



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